Congo Red and amyloids: history and relationship.


Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region 142290, Russia [Email] [Email] [Email]


Staining with Congo Red (CR) is a qualitative method used for the identification of amyloids in vitro and in tissue sections. However, the drawbacks and artefacts obtained when using this dye can be found both in vitro and in vivo Analysis of scientific data from previous studies shows that CR staining alone is not sufficient for confirmation of the amyloid nature of protein aggregates in vitro or for diagnosis of amyloidosis in tissue sections. In the present paper, we describe the characteristics and limitations of other methods used for amyloid studies. Our historical review on the use of CR staining for amyloid studies may provide insight into the pitfalls and caveats related to this technique for researchers considering using this dye.


Congo red,amyloid detection,amyloid dye,amyloid staining,amyloidosis,amyloids,