Contact lens complications among wearers in Ghana.

Affiliation

Kobia-Acquah E(1), Akowuah PK(2), Antwi-Adjei EK(3), Forkuo PM(4), Koomson NY(5), Odotei SO(6), Alabi E(7), Donkor R(8).
Author information:
(1)Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Electronic address: [Email]
(2)Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States. Electronic address: [Email]
(3)Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Electronic address: [Email]
(4)Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Electronic address: [Email]
(5)Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Electronic address: [Email]
(6)Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Electronic address: [Email]
(7)Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States. Electronic address: [Email]
(8)School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Waterloo, Canada. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

PURPOSE: Contact lens (CL) practice is relatively new in Ghana; a country where the geographical location (warm climate) lends itself to harsh environmental conditions (high humidity) known to influence CL wear. Recent studies suggest an increase in CL wear (corrective and cosmetic), yet, there are no studies about CL-related complications. This study sought to determine the complications associated with CL wear in Ghana. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. The medical records of contact lens wearers from five CL clinics in the two largest metropolises in Ghana, Accra and Kumasi, were reviewed. Included in the study were records of individuals who visited the clinics within the period of 2013-2016. Data on patients with contact lens-related complications were analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of CL complications was 29.06 %. The mean ± SD age of patients with CL complications was 35 ± 15 years. Contact lens complications were more common in females (52.90 %). The majority of complications were in soft contact lens wearers (82.35 %). Refractive error correction was the most common indication for CL wear (61.76 %) among those with complications, followed by keratoconus (14.71 %), scarred blind eye (14.71 %), corneal ulcer (5.88 %) and anterior staphyloma (2.94 %). Contact lens complications reported were giant papillary conjunctivitis (41.18 %), corneal infiltrates (23.53 %), bacterial keratitis (14.71 %), corneal abrasion (11.76 %), dry eye (5.88 %) and corneal oedema (2.94 %). The causes of CL complication were inappropriate lens cleaning (29.41 %), poor hygiene (23.53 %), overnight contact lens wear (17.64 %), poor lens fit (14.71 %) and reaction to contact lens solution (14.71 %). CONCLUSION: Contact lens complications were more common in soft contact lens wearers in Ghana. Giant papillary conjunctivitis was the most common contact lens complication reported. Adherence to CL wear care regimen and good personal hygiene may prevent the majority of CL complications observed in Ghana.