Countries' classification by environmental resilience.


Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]


Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization affect countries' vulnerability to future disasters. This study investigates the vulnerability of 141 countries to natural and anthropogenic hazards using six environmental indicators including air pollution, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, access to drinking water, access to improved sanitation, environmental risks (total death and affected people), and energy use. Results confirm that the resilience varies by the location. Furthermore, this work delineates the World countries using the environmental resilience score. The most resilient countries are located in Europe and North America and the least resilient countries are in Africa and Asia. Based on the results, Estonia and Ethiopia are the most and the least resilient countries, respectively. Integrated results can highlight resilient cities as a guide for other regions.


Environmental risks,GHG emissions,Natural and anthropogenic hazards,Resilience,Vulnerability,