Canada B(1), Stephan Y(2), Fundenberger H(3), Sutin AR(4), Terracciano A(5). Author information:
(1)L-ViS, University of Lyon 1.
(2)Euromov, University of Montpellier.
(3)Laboratory SNA-EPIS, Jean Monnet University.
(4)Department of Behavioral Sciences and Social Medicine, College of Medicine,
Florida State University.
(5)Department of Geriatrics, College of Medicine, Florida State University.
Prior research has shown that personality traits are associated with activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs). To advance research on the psychological factors related to aging-related functional limitations, this study examined the relation between personality traits and both concurrent and incident functional limitations, tested whether these associations are similar across IADLs and ADLs, and tested potential mediators of these associations. Participants were drawn from eight longitudinal samples from the U.S., England, and Japan. Participants provided data on demographic variables, the five major personality traits, and on the Katz ADL-scale and Lawton IADL-scales. IADL/ADL limitations were assessed again 3-18 years later. A consistent pattern of associations was found between personality traits and functional limitations, with associations slightly stronger for IADLs than ADLs, and robust across samples that used different measures and from different cultural contexts. The meta-analysis indicated that higher neuroticism was related to a higher likelihood of concurrent and incident IADL/ADL limitations, and higher conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness were associated with lower risk. Higher agreeableness was associated with lower risk of concurrent IADL/ADL, but unrelated to incident limitations. Physical activity, disease burden, depressive symptoms, self-rated health, handgrip strength, falls, and smoking status mediated the relation between personality traits and incident IADL/ADL limitations. The present study indicates that personality traits are risk factors for both IADL and ADL limitations across multiple national cohorts, identifies potential mediators, and informs conceptual models on psychological risk factors for functional decline. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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