Cyclodextrin based natural nanostructured carbohydrate polymers as effective non-viral siRNA delivery systems for cancer gene therapy.

Affiliation

Mousazadeh H(1), Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi Y(2), Dadashpour M(3), Zarghami N(4).
Author information:
(1)Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
(2)Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.
(3)Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
(4)Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), as small non-coding RNA fragments, are one of the widely studied RNAi inducers for gene modulations. The reasonably designed siRNA probes provide a novel potential therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy via silencing the specific cancer-promoting gene. The optimization of physicochemical properties of delivery vectors, such as stability, the possibility of surface functionalization, size, charge, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and non-immunogenicity with receptor-mediated targeting ligands, is necessary for effective intracellular siRNA delivery. The present review is focused on the recent progress of the non-viral nanocarriers for siRNA cancer treatment based on synthetic approaches associated with cyclodextrin (CD)-based carbohydrate polymers, i.e. CD-cationic polymers, CD-polyrotaxanes, CD-dendrimers, and CD-modified tumor-specific targeting ligands. Besides, the efficiency of nanocarriers-based stimuli-responsive CDs is described for the simultaneous delivery of siRNAs and chemotherapeutic drugs. Further, theranostic CD compounds are introduced for the specific diagnosis and cargo-targeting delivery to the specific disease sites. In the meantime, the development of the inherent fluorescent CD-based supramolecular biomaterials without formal chromophores will open up a new strategy to design an effective theranostic non-viral carrier system.