Centre of Research in Ionic Liquids (CORIL), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak, Malaysia; Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak, Malaysia. Electronic address: [Email]
The application of chemical dispersants in marine oil spill remediation is comprehensively reported across the globe. But, the augmented toxicity and poor biodegradability of reported chemical dispersants have created necessity for their replacement with the bio-based green dispersants. Therefore, in the present study, we have synthesized five ionic liquids (ILs) namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium lauroylsarcosinate, 1,1'-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(1-H-pyrrolidinium) dodecylbenzenesulfonate, tetrabutylammonium citrate, tetrabutylammonium polyphosphate and tetrabutylammonium ethoxylate oleyl ether glycolate, and formulated a water based ILs dispersant combining the synthesized ILs at specified compositions. The effectiveness of formulated ILs dispersant was found between 70.75% and 94.71% for the dispersion of various crude oils ranging from light to heavy. Further, the acute toxicity tests against zebra fish and grouper fish have revealed the practically non-toxic behaviour of formulated ILs dispersant with LC50 value greater than 100 ppm after 96 h. In addition, the formulated ILs dispersant has provided excellent biodegradability throughout the test period. Overall, the formulated new ILs dispersant is deemed to facilitate environmentally benign oil spill remediation and could effectively substitute the use of hazardous chemical dispersants in immediate future.