Lee HK(1), Oh Y(2), Hong J(3), Lee SH(4), Hur JK(5). Author information:
(1)Department of Medicine, Graduate School, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763,
(2)Futuristic Animal Resource & Research Center (FARRC), Korea Research
Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Cheongju 28116; Department of
Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University,
Seoul 28116, Korea.
(3)Graduate School of Biomedical Science & Engineering, Hanyang University,
Seoul 04763, Korea.
(4)National Primate Research Center (NPRC), Korea Research Institute of
Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Cheongju 28116, Korea.
(5)Graduate School of Biomedical Science & Engineering, Hanyang University,
Seoul 04763; Department of Genetics, College of Medicine, Hanyang University,
Seoul 04763, Korea.
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system is a family of DNA sequences originally discovered as a type of acquired immunity in prokaryotes such as bacteria and archaea. In many CRISPR systems, the functional ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) are composed of CRISPR protein and guide RNAs. They selectively bind and cleave specific target DNAs or RNAs, based on sequences complementary to the guide RNA. The specific targeted cleavage of the nucleic acids by CRISPR has been broadly utilized in genome editing methods. In the process of genome editing of eukaryotic cells, CRISPRmediated DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) at specific genomic loci activate the endogenous DNA repair systems and induce mutations at the target sites with high efficiencies. Two of the major endogenous DNA repair machineries are non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR). In case of DSB, the two repair pathways operate in competition, resulting in several possible outcomes including deletions, insertions, and substitutions. Due to the inherent stochasticity of DSB-based genome editing methods, it was difficult to achieve defined single-base changes without unanticipated random mutation patterns. In order to overcome the heterogeneity in DSB-mediated genome editing, novel methods have been developed to incorporate precise single-base level changes without inducing DSB. The approaches utilized catalytically compromised CRISPR in conjunction with base-modifying enzymes and DNA polymerases, to accomplish highly efficient and precise genome editing of single and multiple bases. In this review, we introduce some of the advances in single-base level CRISPR genome editing methods and their applications. [BMB Reports 2021; 54(2): 98-105].
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