Singh VK(1), Kumar D(2), Singh SK(3), Pham QB(4), Linh NTT(5), Mohammed S(6), Anh DT(7). Author information:
(1)Faculty of Agriculture Science and Technology, Mahatma Gandhi Kashi
Vidhyapith, Varanasi, India.
(2)Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, Govind Ballabh Pant
University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, 263145, India.
(3)K. Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies, University of Allahabad,
Prayagraj, 211002, India.
(4)Environmental Quality, Atmospheric Science and Climate Change Research Group,
Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Faculty of Environment and
Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
(5)Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Danang 550000,
Vietnam; Faculty of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Duy Tan University,
Danang 550000, Vietnam. Electronic address: [Email]
(6)Institution of Land Utilization, Technology and Regional Planning, University
of Debrecen, Debrecen, 4032, Hungary.
(7)Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HUTECH) 475A, Dien Bien Phu, Ward
25, Binh Thanh District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
The ecological sustainability of rivers is in question due to severe pollution and lack of stringent regulations. Long term (1990-2016) water quality data of five stations namely Haridwar, Bareilly, Kanpur, Prayagraj and Varanasi of Upper Ganga river, India was considered for analysis using fuzzy analytical process (FAHP) based water quality index (WQI) to assess surface water quality. The value of water physical, biological and chemical parameters of temporal resolution (monthly, seasonal and yearly) indicate that value of electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total alkalinity (Mg CaCO3), total hardness (Mg CaCO3), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl) and bicarbonate (HCO3) were observed very high compared to recommended value of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and World Health Organization (WHO) at Kanpur, Prayagraj and Varanasi stations. However, low value of parameters is observed at Haridwar and Bareilly stations. Also, the high deviation was observed in water quality parameters during 1990-2010 whereas the deviation of parameters is decreased in 2011-2016. It is observed from the piper diagram that magnesium and bicarbonate at Haridwar, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate in Bareilly, Kanpur, Prayagraj and Varanasi stations are dominant during monthly and seasonal periods. The fuzzy based WQI value indicate that water quality is excellent to poor at Haridwar, while poor to unsuitable in Bareilly, Kanpur, Prayagraj and Varanasi during monthly and seasonal periods. The water quality ranges from poor to unsuitable during the 1990-2010 period and good to very poor during the 2011-2016 period at Bareilly, Kanpur, Prayagraj and Varanasi stations. Whereas very good to good during 1990-2010 and excellent to good during 2011-2016 at Haridwar. It was also determined that water quality parameters (Ca, Na+K, SO4, Hardness, Cl and Mg) and WQI values were increased with length of the stream. It indicates that drain discharge, urban growth, urban functions, ecological footprints and crop area increment were key sources of pollution.
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