Development of the "hidden" multifunctional agents for Alzheimer's disease.


Key Laboratory of Neuropsychiatric Drug Research of Zhejiang Province, Institute of Materia Medica, Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Hangzhou, 310013, PR China. Electronic address: [Email]


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, fatal and complex neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by cholinergic system dysregulation, metal dyshomeostasis, amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation, etc. Therefore in most cases, single-target or single-functional agents are insufficient to achieve the desirable effect against AD. Multi-Target-Directed Ligand (MTDL), which is rationally designed to simultaneously hit multiple targets to improve the pharmacological profiles, has been developed as a promising approach for drug discovery against AD. To identify the multifunctional agents for AD, we developed an innovative method to successfully conceal the metal chelator into acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Briefly, the "hidden" agents first cross the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) to inhibit the function of AChE, and the metal chelator will then be released via the enzymatic hydrolysis by AChE. Therefore, the AChE inhibitor, in this case, is not only a single-target agent against AD, but also a carrier of the metal chelator. In this study a total of 14 quinoline derivatives were synthesized and biologically evaluated. Both in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that compound 9b could cross the BBB efficiently, then release 8a, the metabolite of 9b, into brain. In vitro, 9b had a potent AChE inhibitory activity, while 8a displayed a significant metal ion chelating function, therefore in combination, both 9b and 8a exhibited a considerable inhibition of Aβ aggregation, one of the observations that plays important roles in the pathogenesis of AD. The efficacy of 9b against AD was further investigated in both a zebrafish model and two different mice models.


Alzheimer's disease,Aβ,Multifunctional agents,

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