Vaccines offer a promising therapeutic strategy to treat substance use disorders (SUD). Vaccines have shown extensive preclinical proof of selectivity, safety, and efficacy against opioids, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, and designer drugs. Despite clinical evaluation of vaccines targeting nicotine and cocaine showing proof of concept for this approach, no vaccine for SUD has yet reached the market. This review first discusses how vaccines for treatment of opioid use disorders (OUD) and reduction of opioid-induced fatal overdoses fit within the current medication assisted treatment (MAT) portfolio, and then summarizes ongoing efforts toward translation of vaccines targeting heroin, oxycodone, fentanyl, and other opioids. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'New Vistas in Opioid Pharmacology'.