BACKGROUND : Diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography using white blood cells labeled with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG-WBC PET or PET/CT) in patients with suspicious infectious diseases has been evaluated in several studies; however, there is no consensus about the diagnostic accuracy of this method. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out on this topic. METHODS : A comprehensive computer literature search screening PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane library databases through March 2019 was performed. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 18F-FDG-WBC PET or PET/CT in patients with infectious diseases were calculated. RESULTS : Eight studies on the use of 18F-FDG-WBC PET or PET/CT in suspicious infectious diseases were discussed in the systematic review. The meta-analysis of seven studies (236 patients) provided these pooled results on a per patient-based analysis: sensitivity was 86.3% [95% confidence interval (95%CI) 75-92.9%], specificity 92% (95%CI 79.8-97.1%), LR+ 6.6 (95%CI: 3.1-14.1), LR- 0.2 (95%CI: 0.12-0.33), DOR 43.5 (95%CI: 12.2-155). A statistically significant heterogeneity was not detected. CONCLUSIONS : Despite limited literature data, 18F-FDG-WBC PET or PET/CT demonstrated a good diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of infectious diseases; nevertheless, larger studies are needed.