Department of Internal Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, 22 S Greene St, N3E09, Baltimore, MD, MD 21201, USA; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 110 S Paca St, Suite 7-124, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Electronic address: [Email]
Dietary nutrient intake and its metabolism by the gut microbiome have recently been implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In particular, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite of the gut microbiota, has been shown to be a predictor of incident CVD events. Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) have also been associated with an increased propensity for insulin resistance.