Direct Methotrexate Injection into the Gestational Sac for Nontubal Ectopic Pregnancy: A Review of Efficacy and Outcomes from a Single Institution.

Affiliation

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (all authors). Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the efficacy of nontubal ectopic pregnancy (NTEP) management with direct methotrexate (MTX) injection into the gestational sac.
METHODS : A retrospective chart review.
METHODS : A tertiary academic and teaching hospital.
METHODS : All cases of confirmed NTEP were retrospectively identified from 2012 to 2017.
METHODS : Ultrasound-guided direct injection of MTX into the fetal pole and surrounding gestational sac and a single dose of systemic MTX with or without fetal intracardiac injection of potassium chloride.
RESULTS : Treatment failure, complications from treatment, operating time, and days to negative serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) after treatment were measured. Fourteen women (age 34 ± 5.2 years) with NTEP underwent direct MTX injection (cesarean scar, n = 4; interstitial, n = 6; cervical, n = 4). The mean estimated gestational age was 49 ± 11, CI (43, 56 days). One patient required laparoscopic intervention with a failure rate of 1 of 14 (a double interstitial, heterotopic pregnancy). There were no other major complications. The time in the operating room was similar for all NTEP types. The average time to negative serum hCG was not different for cesarean scar (84.5 ± 36 days), cervical pregnancies (70.5 ± 19 days), or interstitial pregnancies (45.3 ± 38 days, p = .15).
CONCLUSIONS : Direct MTX injection into the gestational sac for NTEP treatment is safe and effective. The failure rate of 7% is considerably lower than what was previously reported for a failure of systemic MTX in similar cases (25%). Resolution of serum hCG after treatment can be quite prolonged even in uncomplicated cases.

Keywords

Direct injection methotrexate,Gynecologic minimally invasive surgery,Nontubal ectopic pregnancy,

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