Discovery, synthesis, and optimization of an N-alkoxy indolylacetamide against HIV-1 carrying NNRTI-resistant mutations from the Isatis indigotica root.

Affiliation

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

From an aqueous decoction of the traditional Chinese medicine "ban lan gen" (the Isatis indigotica root), an antiviral natural product CI - 39 was isolated as an NNRTI (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) (EC50 = 3.40 μM). Its novel structure was determined as methyl (1-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)acetamidobenzoate by spectroscopic data and confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Through synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) investigation of CI - 39 and 57 new derivatives (24 with EC50 values of 0.06-8.55 μM), two optimized derivatives 10f and 10i (EC50: 0.06 μM and 0.06 μM) having activity comparable to that of NVP (EC50 = 0.03 μM) were obtained. Further evaluation verified that 10f and 10i were RT DNA polymerase inhibitors and exhibited better activities and drug resistance folds compared to NVP against seven NNRTI-resistant strains carrying different mutations. Especially, 10i (EC50 = 0.43 μM) was more active to the L100I/K103N double-mutant strain as compared to both NVP (EC50 = 0.76 μM) and EFV (EC50 = 1.08 μM). The molecular docking demonstrated a possible binding pattern between 10i and RT and revealed activity mechanism of 10i against the NNRTI-resistant strains.

Keywords

Derivative synthesis,HIV-1 inhibitor,Isatis indigotica,N-Alkyloxy indole derivative,NNRTI,Structure-activity relationship,

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