Dynamics of bacterial community in Tonle Sap Lake, a large tropical flood-pulse system in Southeast Asia.


School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 J2-15 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]


Tonle Sap Lake, the largest freshwater body in Southeast Asia, plays an important role in lives and environment. The lake is reportedly under anthropogenic pressure and suffers from eutrophication. The floating villagers suffer from waterborne diseases. However, the shift in bacterial community due to human activities in this great lake has not yet been reported. We aimed to determine the dynamics of the bacterial community and their concentration in the lake using 67 surface waters, 53 sub-layer waters and 59 sediment samples by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). The bacterial communities in the surface water and sub-layer water were similar but they differed from the sediment; however, their abundance showed spatiotemporal variations. The bacterial diversity reached the highest value in the dry season but lowest value in the rainy season in the surface water and sediment. Their diversity in the sub-layer water was highest in the transition from dry to rainy season. The total 16S rRNA gene copy number in the sediment were >100 times higher than that measured in the water. The Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria concentrations in the lake water increased in the dry season and reached a peak in the transition from dry to rainy season. The concentrations of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes elevated in the lake water and sediment, respectively, in the floating villages which were >10 times higher than the places with non-point sources. The bacterial concentration and its diversity in the Tonle Sap Lake changed based on the lake water volume between rainy and dry season. The bacterial concentration in the Tonle Sap Lake diluted with the water inflow from Mekong River and its tributaries in the rainy season. As influenced by the fecal waste, the bacterial community in the floating villages differed from the places with non-point source.


Bacterial diversity,Floating villages,Next Generation Sequencing,Tonle Sap Lake,Tropical lake,

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