Effect of Helicobacter pylori biofilm formation on susceptibility to amoxicillin, metronidazole and clarithromycin.


Department of Infectious Diseases, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8611, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]


The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori forms biofilms in vitro and in vivo. We previously demonstrated that H. pylori biofilm formation in vitro decreased its susceptibility to clarithromycin (CAM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of biofilm formation on amoxicillin (AMPC) and metronidazole (MNZ) susceptibility. In addition, we assessed the influence of biofilms of CAM resistant H. pylori on CAM susceptibility. It was shown that high levels of efflux pump gene transcripts were detected in biofilm cells of all H. pylori strains used in this study. H. pylori biofilm biomass was significantly decreased compared to initial biomass after treatment with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AMPC. Similarly, the biofilm biomass of H. pylori decreased after treatment with MIC of MNZ, although the difference was not statistically significant. However, minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of AMPC or MNZ to biofilm cells were higher than those of planktonic cells. The biofilm biomasses of all of the CAM resistant strains were significantly decreased compared to initial biomass after treatment with 2x MIC of CAM. However, the viability of the CAM treated biofilm cells with 2x MIC of CAM was not significantly reduced compared to initial cell numbers with the exception of one strain. The viability of biofilm cells of all strains was higher than that of planktonic cells after treatment with various concentrations of CAM. These results indicate that biofilm cells were more resistant to these antibiotics than planktonic cells and that the assessment of the ability to form biofilms in H. pylori is important for eradication of this microorganism.


Antibiotics susceptibility,Biofilm formation,Clarithromycin resistance,Helicobacter pylori,MBC,