Previous studies indicated a positive effect of vitamin K2 (VK2) supplementation on bone turnover biomarkers and bone mineral density (BMD), but the doses varied, and few studies have focused on the difference between VK2 supplementation alone and in combination with calcium and vitamin D3. The aim of this study was to explore a low and effective dose of VK2 for improving BMD, and to examine whether the co-supplementation of VK2, calcium and vitamin D3 would bring greater effects. In this trial, a total of 311 community-dwelling men and postmenopausal women aged 50 and 75 years were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving placebo, 50 µg/day, 90 µg/day or co-supplementation with calcium (500 mg/day) and vitamin D3 (10 µg/day) for 1 year. At the endpoint, the bone loss of femoral neck was significantly lower in postmenopausal women in the two 90 µg groups (treatment × time, p = 0.006) compared with placebo, but no effects in men. Serum biomarkers cOC/ucOC ratio increased in the intervention groups (treatment × time, p < 0.001). VK2 supplementation in dose of 90 µg/day performed a significant effect on reducing bone loss in postmenopausal women, but in combination with calcium and vitamin D3 brought no additional effects.Trial registration This trial was registered at http://www.chictr.org.cn as chiCTR1800019240.