Effect of ketorolac in intra-articular injection analgesia for postoperative pain in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy: a pilot-controlled clinical study.


Department of Orthopaedics, Changzhou Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213003, China, [Email]


UNASSIGNED : To date, a regional approach using local anesthetics has become a popular analgesic method for arthroscopy. The optimal postoperative analgesia method for shoulder arthroscopy is still debated.
UNASSIGNED : This study was designed to evaluate the effect and safety of using ketorolac in combination with a multimodal drug regime (ropivacaine, morphine, and triamcinolone acetonide) after shoulder arthroscopy.
UNASSIGNED : A total of 60 patients were included in a pilot study and patients were randomized into an experimental group (n=30) and a control group (n=30). The following parameters were used to evaluate pain relief levels postoperatively: the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, morphine consumption, and initial analgesic desired time. Complications were also recorded.
UNASSIGNED : Except for 1 hour postoperatively, patients in the experimental group experienced lower VAS scores during the first 48 hours postoperatively (P<0.05). The VAS score in both groups increased after 3 hours postoperatively and peaked at 12 hours postoperatively (2.54±0.86 vs 3.25±1.18). The VAS scores on movement in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group at 24 or 48 hours postoperatively (P=0.004, 0.001). A total of 18 (60.0%) patients in the experimental group required no additional analgesia, compared with 10 (33.3 %) in the control group (P=0.035). The mean rescue analgesia was 11.40±5.56 mg in the experiment group, while 16.57±8.48 mg in the control group (P=0.016). The initial analgesic desired time was delayed significantly in the experimental group (16.50±14.57 hours vs 8.9±6.32 hours, P=0.000).
UNASSIGNED : Adding ketorolac to intra-articular injection analgesia is a safe and effective method to improve pain relief after shoulder arthroscopy, and further prospective controlled trials are necessary to allow definite treatment recommendations.


intra-articular injection analgesia,ketorolac,postoperative pain,shoulder arthroscopy,