Effectiveness of a theory-based foot care education program (3STEPFUN) in improving foot self-care behaviours and foot risk factors for ulceration in people with type 2 diabetes.


School of Nursing, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Australia; Ho Chi Minh City University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Viet Nam. Electronic address: [Email]


OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based foot care education intervention program (3STEPFUN) for people with type 2 diabetes at low risk of developing a foot ulcer.
METHODS : A controlled, pre-test/ post-test quasi-experimental design was used. From 119 participants, 60 participants in the control group received usual care and a foot care brochure. Those in the intervention group received (1) a small group intensive education and hands-on skills session; (2) a foot care kit and documents; and (3) three regular booster follow-up phone calls over 6 months. Generalised Estimating Equations models were undertaken to examine the impact of the intervention on outcomes over time.
RESULTS : The intervention group had significantly improved outcomes compared to the control group over 6 months in the following aspects: improved preventive foot care behaviour (p = 0.001); and decreased prevalence of foot risk factors for ulceration (i.e. dry skin, corns/ callus) (OR: 0.04, 95% CI 0.01 - 0.13, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS : The study's findings provide evidence of 3STEPFUN on improving foot self-care behaviour and preventing minor foot problems. Further study with formal RCT design and longer follow-up time to examine the effects on decreasing foot ulcer incidence is recommended.


Diabetes,Education intervention,Foot self-care,Foot ulceration,Low-risk,