Effects of Dietary Fat Restriction on Endurance Training-induced Metabolic Adaptations in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

Affiliation

Karasawa T(1), Kondo S(1)(2), Fukazawa A(1), Koike A(1), Tsutsui M(1), Terada S(1).
Author information:
(1)Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo.
(2)Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Abstract

Endurance exercise training enhances muscle fat oxidation while concomitantly reducing carbohydrate (glycogen) utilization during exercise, thereby delaying the onset of fatigue. This study examined the effects of dietary fat restriction on endurance training-induced metabolic adaptations in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on either a control diet (CON: 19.2% protein, 21.6% fat, and 59.2% carbohydrate as a percentage of total energy) or a fat-restricted diet (FR: 21.5% protein, 2.4% fat, and 76.1% carbohydrate as a percentage of total energy) for 4 wks. Half the rats in each dietary group performed daily 6-h swimming exercise (two 3-h sessions separated by 45 min of rest) on 5 days each wk. Endurance training significantly increased the expression of β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (βHAD), a key enzyme of fat oxidation, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), an inhibitory regulator of glycolytic flux, in the skeletal muscle of rats fed the CON diet. However, such endurance training-induced increases in muscle βHAD and PDK4 were partially suppressed by the FR diet, suggesting that a FR diet may diminish the endurance training-induced enhancement of fat oxidation and reduction in glycogen utilization during exercise. We then assessed the muscle glycogen utilization rate during an acute bout of swimming exercise in the trained rats fed either the CON or the FR diet and consequently found that rats fed the FR diet had a significantly higher muscle glycogen utilization rate during exercise compared with rats fed the CON diet. In conclusion, dietary fat restriction may attenuate the endurance training-induced metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle.