Effects of blends of camel and calf chymosin on proteolysis, residual coagulant activity, microstructure, and sensory characteristics of Beyaz peynir.

Affiliation

Department of Food Engineering, Inonu University, 44280 Malatya, Turkey. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Beyaz peynir, a white brined cheese, was manufactured using different blends of camel chymosin (100, 75, 50, 25, and 0%) with calf chymosin and ripened for 90 d. The purpose of this study was to determine the best mixture of coagulant for Beyaz peynir, in terms of proteolysis, texture, and melting characteristics. The cheeses were evaluated in terms of chemical composition, levels of proteolysis, total free amino acids, texture, meltability, residual coagulant activity, microstructure, and sensory properties during 90 d of ripening. Differences in the gross chemical composition were statistically significant for all types of cheeses. Levels of proteolysis were highly dependent on the blends of the coagulants. Higher proteolysis was observed in cheeses that used a higher ratio of calf chymosin. Differences in urea-PAGE and peptide profiles of each cheese were observed as well. Meltability values proportionally increased with the higher increasing levels of calf chymosin in the blend formula. These coagulants had a slight effect on the microstructure of cheeses. The cheese made with camel chymosin had a harder texture than calf chymosin cheese, and hardness values of all cheese samples decreased during ripening. The cheeses with a high ratio of calf chymosin had higher residual enzyme activity than those made with camel chymosin. No significant difference in sensory properties was observed among the cheeses. In conclusion, cheeses made with a high level of calf chymosin had a higher level of proteolysis, residual coagulant activity, and meltability. The cheeses also had a softer texture than cheeses made with a high content of camel chymosin. Camel chymosin may be used as a coagulant alone if low or limited levels of proteolysis are desired in cheese.

Keywords

Beyaz peynir,camel and calf chymosin,proteolysis,white brined cheese,

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