Effects of carbon-based nanomaterials on vascular endothelia under physiological and pathological conditions: interactions, mechanisms and potential therapeutic applications.

Affiliation

Zhang Y(1), Zhang Y(2), Wu J(2), Liu J(3), Kang Y(2), Hu C(2), Feng X(3), Liu W(3), Luo H(3), Chen A(3), Chen L(4), Shao L(5).
Author information:
(1)Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Construction and Detection in Tissue Engineering, Guangzhou 510515, China.
(2)Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.
(3)Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280, China.
(4)Department of Stomatology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China; School of Stomatology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China; Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Oral and Maxillofacial Development and Regeneration, Wuhan 430022, China.
(5)Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Construction and Detection in Tissue Engineering, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

The endothelium participates in maintaining vascular hemostasis and is involved in multiple pathological processes. Although it is rarely the targeted tissue, the endothelium interacts intimately with applied therapeutic systems. Carbon nanomaterials (CBNs) with editable physiochemical characteristics and outstanding biosafety are believed to have great prospects in the biomedical field. Before reaching their destination, these materials necessarily enter the blood vessels and interact with the vascular endothelium, which strongly affects the biomedical efficiency. In this work, we start with the changes that CBNs cause to physiological endothelial barriers and then organize the potential mechanisms revealed. Subsequently, we discuss the factors influencing the CBN-endothelium interaction and highlight the importance of balancing therapeutic efficiency and biocompatibility. More importantly, this work introduces the heterogeneity of multiple vascular endothelia under both physiological and pathological conditions and the related applications with the hope of promoting improved accuracy and curative effects of future therapeutic systems. Through this manuscript, we hope to help illuminate the current status quo of CBN-vascular research and inspire further exciting progress via the insights we gained from the current outstanding examples.