Effects of dietary cypermethrin exposure on swimming performance and expression of lipid homeostatic genes in livers of juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

Affiliation

Fuller N(1), Magnuson JT(2), Huff Hartz KE(1), Fulton CA(1), Whitledge GW(1), Acuña S(3), Schlenk D(2)(4), Lydy MJ(5).
Author information:
(1)Center for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, 62901, USA.
(2)Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, USA.
(3)Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, 1121L Street, Suite 900, Sacramento, CA, USA.
(4)Institute of Environmental Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.
(5)Center for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, 62901, USA. [Email]

Abstract

The increased use of pyrethroid insecticides raises concern for exposure to non-target aquatic species, such as Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Cypermethrin, a type II pyrethroid, is frequently detected in surface waters and sediments at concentrations that exceed levels that induce toxicity to several invertebrate and salmonid species. To better understand the effects of cypermethrin to salmonids following dietary exposure, juvenile Chinook salmon were dietarily exposed to a 0, 200, or 2000 ng/g cypermethrin diet for a duration of 7, 14, or 21 days and assessed for body burden residues, swimming performance, lipid content, and lipid homeostatic gene expression. The average cypermethrin concentrations in fish dietarily exposed to cypermethrin for 21 days were 155.4 and 952.1 ng cypermethrin/g lipid for the 200 and 2000 ng/g pellet treatments, respectively. Increased trends of fatty acid synthase (fasn, r2 = 0.10, p < 0.05) and ATP citrate lyase (acly, r2 = 0.21, p < 0.001) mRNA expression were found in the fish livers relative to increasing cypermethrin body burden residues, though no significant changes in the mRNA expression of farnesoid X receptor or liver X receptor were observed. Furthermore, Chinook salmon dietarily exposed to cypermethrin did not have a significantly altered burst swimming performance (Umax). These results support studies that have suggested Umax may not be a sensitive endpoint when assessing the effects of certain pesticide classes, such as pyrethroids, but that dysregulation of fasn and acly expression may alter lipid homeostasis and energy metabolism in the liver of fish dietarily exposed to cypermethrin.