Glyphosate (GLY) is a broad-spectrum, post-emergent, non-selective and synthetic universal herbicide, whose commercial formulations are referred to as glyphosate-based-herbicides (GBHs). These chemicals and their metabolites can be found in soil, air, water, as well as groundwater and food products. This review summarizes to summarize current in vitro and epidemiological studies investigating the effects of GLY exposure on human health. Recent human cell studies have reported several GLY and GBH toxicological effects and have contributed to a better understanding of the deleterious consequences associated with their exposure. However, these detrimental effects are dependent on the cell type, chemical composition, as well as magnitude and time of exposure, among other factors. Moreover, the deleterious effects of GLY exposure on human health were observed in epidemiological studies; however, most of these studies have not determined the GLY dosage to confirm a direct effect. While GLY toxicity is clear in human cells, epidemiological studies investigating individuals exposed to different levels of GLY have reported contradictory data. Therefore, based on currently available in vitro and epidemiological data, it is not possible to confirm the complete safety of GLY use, which will require additional comprehensive studies in animal models and humans.