Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) dose of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the reproductive organs of female mice.

Affiliation

Kitauchi S(1), Maeda M(1), Hirano T(2), Ikenaka Y(3)(4)(5), Nishi M(1), Shoda A(1), Murata M(1), Mantani Y(6), Yokoyama T(1), Tabuchi Y(2), Hoshi N(1).
Author information:
(1)Laboratory of Animal Molecular Morphology, Department of Animal Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501, Japan.
(2)Life Science Research Center, Toyama University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan.
(3)Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan.
(4)Translational Research Unit, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan.
(5)Water Research Group, Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, 11 Hoffman Street, Potchefstroom 2531, South Africa.
(6)Laboratory of Histophysiology, Department of Animal Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501, Japan.

Abstract

Recently, developmental exposure to clothianidin (CLO) has been shown to cause reproductive toxicity in male mice, but the effects in female mice remain to be clarified. Pregnant C57BL/6N mice were given a no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) dose of CLO until weaning. We then examined ovaries of 3- or 10-week-old female offspring. In the CLO-administered group, morphological changes, a decrease in the immunoreactivity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), and activation of genes in the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway were observed in 3-week-old mice, and decreases of GPx4 immunoreactivity, 17OH-progesterone and corticosterone levels were observed in 10-week-old mice, along with high rates of infanticide and severe neglect, providing new evidence that developmental exposure to CLO affects juvenile and adult mice differently.