At present, there are few reports on the glycosylation modification of soybean proteins under irradiation. In this paper, a soybean protein isolate and maltose were used as raw materials to prepare a glycosylated soybean protein under gamma-ray treatment to improve the functional properties and evaluate the changes in the structure. The results of analysis of the graft degree, browning index, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, infrared spectrum, fluorescence spectrum and ultraviolet spectrum of the modified product showed that the Maillard reaction between the soybean protein isolate and maltose occurred and the structure of the reaction product changed. When the irradiation dose was 7.5 kGy, the solubility of modified products increased by 23 ± 0.21% compared with that of the control group. The foaming property and foam stability increased by 62.5 ± 0.34% and 41 ± 0.47%, respectively. Emulsification, water absorption capacity and fat absorption capacity of glycosylated compounds also increased significantly. Compared with other modification methods, irradiation technology had the advantages of short action time, high efficiency and low cost, and more importantly, its industrial production was easy to implement. This experiment combined irradiation technology with the glycosylation modification method. It was proved that irradiation could promote the Maillard reaction between the soybean protein isolate and maltose, and significantly improve the functional properties of the modified protein, providing theoretical and technical support for expanding the application of the soy protein isolate in the food industry.