In the present work, we studied the effects of different oligosaccharides on Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917, focusing on growth and adhesion characteristics and fermented milk flavor. The results showed that mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) had the greatest proliferative effect on L. plantarum ATCC14917 in vitro. In terms of adhesive properties, the autoaggregation rate of L. plantarum cultured in MOS was 23.76%, adhesion to mucin was 24.65%, and adhesion to Caco-2 cells was 14.71%. These results for L. plantarum cultured with MOS were higher than those for L. plantarum cultured in fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). Furthermore, the surface consistency and viscosity scores of fermented milk of the MOS group was higher than that of milks cultured with FOS or GOS, although MOS had the lowest scores for fermented milk flavor.