BACKGROUND : The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tannase-converted green tea extract with a high (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and gallic acid (GA) content on myotube density and fusion in normal and oxidative stress-induced C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Although the use of green tea extract is considered beneficial, cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of tannase-converted green tea extracts that are used as potential muscle growth materials have not been thoroughly studied. METHODS : This study used histological analysis and molecular biology techniques, and compared the results with those for AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleoside (AICAR) and green tea extracts. RESULTS : The myotube density of normal and oxidative stress-induced C2C12 cells was significantly higher in the tannase-converted green tea extract-treated group than that observed in the other groups (normal cells: P < 0.01; oxidative stress-induced cells: P < 0.05). In addition, tannase-converted green tea extract and green tea extract treatments significantly upregulated the genetic expression of myogenin, Myf5, and MyoD (P < 0.05). The levels of AMP-activated protein kinase-α (AMPKα) and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF-1) in the tannase-converted green tea extract group were higher than those in the AICAR and green tea extract groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS : Taken together, our findings describe that the high levels of EC, EGC, and GA in the tannase-converted green tea extract are attributable to the morphological changes in C2C12 cells and intercellular signaling pathways. Therefore, tannase-converted green tea extract can be used in the treatment of sarcopenia.