Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Queensland Fruit Fly Females to Fruit Odors.

Affiliation

The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Private Bag 4704, Christchurch Mail Centre, Christchurch, 8140, New Zealand. [Email]

Abstract

Females of the Queensland fruit fly (QFF), Bactrocera tryoni, are amongst the most damaging pests of horticulture in Australia and neighboring countries. Females can lay eggs into more than a hundred species of fruits and vegetables, resulting in large crop losses. Sexually mature males can be managed sustainably with traps baited with long-lasting synthetic lures, and sexually immature males and females can be attracted and killed by short-lived protein baits applied directly on surfaces, with a low success rate (< 20%). No long-lasting attractants for virgin or mated females exist. With the aim of developing a female attractant for surveillance, we collected and analyzed the odors of four ripe host fruits: orange, cherry guava, banana and feijoa. Virgin and mated female QFF were tested with gas-chromatography coupled with electro-antennographic detection to identify electrophysiologically (EAD)-active compounds. We detected 41 EAD-active compounds, with seven found common for more than one fruit. Overall, mated females responded more often and with higher intensity than virgin females. In particular, five compounds present either in cherry guava or feijoa triggered a significantly higher EAD response from mated females than from virgins. Twenty-six EAD-active compounds were selected and tested individually in a Y-tube olfactometer to measure attraction of both virgin and mated females. Behavioral responses differed significantly amongst the compounds, but not strongly between virgin and mated females. We did not find any correlation between electrophysiological and behavioral responses. Further field testing with behaviorally-active compounds is needed for the development of a new QFF female lure.

Keywords

Bactrocera tryoni,Electrophysiology,Female,Fruit volatiles,Olfactometer,Physiology,

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