Emerging Nanomedicine-Enabled/Enhanced Nanodynamic Therapies beyond Traditional Photodynamics.

Affiliation

Hu H(1)(2), Feng W(3), Qian X(1), Yu L(3), Chen Y(3)(4), Li Y(2).
Author information:
(1)Medmaterial Research Center, Jiangsu University Affiliated People's Hospital, Zhenjiang, 212002, P. R. China.
(2)Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200233, China.
(3)School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 2000444, P. R. China.
(4)State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramic and Superfine, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050, P. R. China.

Abstract

The rapid knowledge growth of nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology enables and promotes the emergence of distinctive disease-specific therapeutic modalities, among which nanomedicine-enabled/augmented nanodynamic therapy (NDT), as triggered by either exogenous or endogenous activators on nanosensitizers, can generate reactive radicals for accomplishing efficient disease nanotherapies with mitigated side effects and endowed disease specificity. As one of the most representative modalities of NDT, traditional light-activated photodynamics suffers from the critical and unsurmountable issues of the low tissue-penetration depth of light and the phototoxicity of the photosensitizers. To overcome these obstacles, versatile nanomedicine-enabled/augmented NDTs have been explored for satisfying varied biomedical applications, which strongly depend on the physicochemical properties of the involved nanomedicines and nanosensitizers. These distinctive NDTs refer to sonodynamic therapy (SDT), thermodynamic therapy (TDT), electrodynamic therapy (EDT), piezoelectric dynamic therapy (PZDT), pyroelectric dynamic therapy (PEDT), radiodynamic therapy (RDT), and chemodynamic therapy (CDT). Herein, the critical roles, functions, and biological effects of nanomedicine (e.g., sonosensitizing, photothermal-converting, electronic, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, radiation-sensitizing, and catalytic properties) for enabling the therapeutic procedure of NDTs, are highlighted and discussed, along with the underlying therapeutic principle and optimization strategy for augmenting disease-therapeutic efficacy and biosafety. The present challenges and critical issues on the clinical translations of NDTs are also discussed and clarified.