Emission profiles, ozone formation potential and health-risk assessment of volatile organic compounds in rubber footwear industries in China.


Key Laboratory of Environmental Nanotechnology and Health Effects, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing, 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address: [Email]


The emission characteristics of VOCs in the rubber footwear industry (RFI) and its effect on human health are poorly understood to date. Herein, up to 68 VOCs, sorted into seven classes including alkanes, alkenes, acetylene, aromatics, halocarbons, carbon disulfide, and oxygenated VOCs, were monitored. VOCs emitted from three main processing stages of RFI, including shaping, painting and vulcanizing, were 383, 1507 and 1026 mg/m3, respectively. The top 10 VOCs contributing to the concentration and ozone formation potential were identified. Generally, alkanes were the major component emitted from three stages, contributing 48.58%-63.07% of the total VOCs. Alkenes contributed most to the OFP, accounting for 37.2%-69.1%. Based on the risk assessment, a definite cancer risk for workers in shaping workshop should be noticed. Several VOCs with a life carcinogenic risk higher than 10-4, especially benzene, bromodichloromethane, ethylbenzene and 1,1,2-trichloroethane, should be focused on. Therefore, more attention should be taken for the extended-ranges of VOCs in subordinate RFI, except for the publicly concerned aromatics in rubber industry. A VOCs emission inventory from the production process of Chinese RFI in 2000-2016 was compiled. It is estimated that Chinese RFIs have emitted a total of 319 × 104 t VOCs in those past 17 years.


Emission characteristics,Health risk assessment,Ozone formation potential,Rubber footwear industry,Volatile organic compounds,