Emissions, measurement, and control of odor in livestock farms: A review.

Affiliation

Wang YC(1), Han MF(1), Jia TP(2), Hu XR(1), Zhu HQ(3), Tong Z(1), Lin YT(1), Wang C(4), Liu DZ(5), Peng YZ(6), Wang G(7), Meng J(8), Zhai ZX(8), Zhang Y(8), Deng JG(9), Hsi HC(10).
Author information:
(1)School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China; Tianjin Key Lab of Indoor Air Environmental Quality Control, Tianjin 300072, China.
(2)National Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technology, Engineering Research Center of Beijing, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China.
(3)Key Laboratory of Equipment and Informatization in Environment Controlled Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.
(4)School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China; Tianjin Key Lab of Indoor Air Environmental Quality Control, Tianjin 300072, China. Electronic address: [Email]
(5)Key Laboratory of Equipment and Informatization in Environment Controlled Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address: [Email]
(6)National Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technology, Engineering Research Center of Beijing, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China. Electronic address: [Email]
(7)State Key Laboratory on Odor Pollution Control, Tianjin Academy of Environmental Sciences, Tianjin 300191, China.
(8)State Key Laboratory on Odor Pollution Control, Tianjin Academy of Environmental Sciences, Tianjin 300191, China; Tianjin Sinodour Environmental Technology Co., Ltd, Tianjin 300191, China.
(9)College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China.
(10)Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan.

Abstract

Odor emissions from intensive livestock farms have attracted increased attention due to their adverse impacts on the environment and human health. Nevertheless, a systematic summary regarding the characteristics, sampling detection, and control technology for odor emissions from livestock farms is currently lacking. This paper compares the development of odor standards in different countries and summarizes the odor emission characteristics of livestock farms. Ammonia, the most common odor substance, can reach as high as 4100 ppm in the compost area. Sampling methods for point and area source odor emissions are introduced in this paper, and odor analysis methods are compared. Olfactometers, odorometers, and the triangle odor bag method are usually used to measure odor concentration. Odor control technologies are divided into three categories: physical (activated carbon adsorption, masking, and dilution diffusion), chemical (plant extract spraying, wet scrubbing, combustion, non-thermal plasma, and photocatalytic oxidation), and biological (biofiltration, biotrickling, and bioscrubbing). Each technology is elucidated, and the performance in the removal of different pollutants is summarized. The application scopes, costs, operational stability, and secondary pollution of the technologies are compared. The generation of secondary pollution and long-term operation stability are issues that should be considered in future technological development. Lastly, a case analysis for engineering application is conducted.