Employment of enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR): Nanoparticle-based precision tools for targeting of therapeutic and diagnostic agent in cancer.


National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER)-Ahmedabad, An Institute of National Importance, Government of India, Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Palaj, Opposite Air Force Station, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382355, India. Electronic address: [Email]


In tumorous tissues, the absence of vasculature supportive tissues intimates the formation of leaky vessels and pores (100 nm to 2 μm in diameter) and the poor lymphatic system offers great opportunity to treat cancer and the phenomenon is known as Enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The trends in treating cancer by making use of EPR effect is increasing day by day and generate multitudes of possibility to design novel anticancer therapeutics. This review aimed to present various factors affecting the EPR effect along with important things to know about EPR effect such as tumor perfusion, lymphatic function, interstitial penetration, vascular permeability, nanoparticle retention etc. This manuscript expounds the current advances and cross-talks the developments made in the of EPR effect-based therapeutics in cancer therapy along with a transactional view of its current clinical and industrial aspects.


Cancer,Dendrimers,Enhanced permeability and retention effect,Liposomes,Polymeric micelles,Tumor microenvironment,