Enantioselective analysis of pheniramine in rat using large volume sample stacking or cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping coupled with cyclodextrin modified electrokinetic chromatography.
For the aim of simultaneously performing the enantioseparation and determination of the trace enantiomers in plasma samples, enantioseparation by HPLC using five kinds of chiral stationary phases were initially investigated. But unfortunately, enantioseparation could not be detected in reversed mobile phase mode with all the five columns. For this reason, two simple, economical and highly efficient online preconcentration methods, large volume sample stacking and sweeping (LVSS-sweeping) and cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping (CSEI-sweeping) both followed by the cyclodextrin modified electrokinetic chromatography (CDEKC) were examined in the present work. Parameters affecting the enantioseparation and enhancement efficiency of these two injection modes were monitored in detail, and migration order of the two enantiomers was identified by circular dichroism (CD) and HPLC. Upon optimization, two enantiomers were best separated with the improvement of sensitivity reaching 160-fold and 4000-fold respectively for LVSS-sweeping and CSEI-sweeping comparing with the normal CDEKC separation. Then the optimal condition of CSEI-sweeping-CDEKC was validated and showed high sensitivity (10 ng/mL for lower limit of quantification, LLOQ), satisfactory accuracy (96.8-111.6%) and precision (relative standard deviation, RSD within 9.4%). This demonstrated it to be a suitable strategy for the rapid enantioselective determination and quantitative analysis of pheniramine enantiomers in plasma samples. Therefore, the method was further applied in the enantiomeric analysis of pheniramine in rat pharmacokinetics and plasma protein binding investigations. Stereoselectivity in pharmacokinetics as well as plasma protein binding were observed, suggesting that the stereoselective protein binding might be responsible for the stereoselectivity in pharmacokinetics.