Endoscopic Hematoma Evacuation for Intracerebral Hemorrhage Under Local Anesthesia: Factors That Affect the Hematoma Removal Rate.


Department of Neurosurgery, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sendai, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]


OBJECTIVE : Recent advances in endoscopic surgery have led to more patients being able to undergo endoscopic removal of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH). However, because of the minimal invasiveness, endoscopic HICH removal through a narrow surgical window can result in a low removal rate. The goal of the present study was to investigate the factors that affect the removal rate of HICH evacuation.
METHODS : The data from 28 patients with supratentorial HICH who had undergone endoscopic hematoma evacuation were retrospectively analyzed. The inclusion criteria were spontaneous supratentorial HICH with a hematoma volume >30 mL, admission to the hospital within 24 hours of ictus, and a Glasgow coma scale score of ≥4.
RESULTS : Of the 28 patients, 9 were women and 19 were men, ranging in age from 41 to 86 years (mean, 60.7 ± 12.7). The hematoma location was the basal ganglia in 25 patients and subcortical in 3 patients. The mean preoperative hematoma volume was 62.4 ± 22.5 mL. The hematoma removal rate was <60% for 11 patients (poor evacuation group) and ≥60% for in 17 patients (good evacuation group). Comparing the 2 groups, chronic renal failure treated with hemodialysis (P = 0.0072, χ2 test), liver cirrhosis (P = 0.023, χ2 test), and surgeon experience with ≥10 cases of endoscopic HICH removal (P = 0.016, χ2 test) were significant factors related to the HICH removal rate.
CONCLUSIONS : To achieve a good removal rate, surgeons should have experience performing the endoscopic procedure. Also, patients with end-stage chronic renal failure or liver cirrhosis should be excluded.


Endoscopic removal,Hemodialysis,Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage,Liver cirrhosis,Removal rate,

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