Enhancer RNAs: transcriptional regulators and workmates of NamiRNAs in myogenesis.

Affiliation

Odame E(1), Chen Y(1), Zheng S(1), Dai D(1), Kyei B(1), Zhan S(1), Cao J(1), Guo J(1), Zhong T(1), Wang L(1), Li L(2), Zhang H(3).
Author information:
(1)Farm Animal Genetic Resources Exploration and Innovation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.
(2)Farm Animal Genetic Resources Exploration and Innovation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China. [Email]
(3)Farm Animal Genetic Resources Exploration and Innovation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China. [Email]

Abstract

miRNAs are well known to be gene repressors. A newly identified class of miRNAs termed nuclear activating miRNAs (NamiRNAs), transcribed from miRNA loci that exhibit enhancer features, promote gene expression via binding to the promoter and enhancer marker regions of the target genes. Meanwhile, activated enhancers produce endogenous non-coding RNAs (named enhancer RNAs, eRNAs) to activate gene expression. During chromatin looping, transcribed eRNAs interact with NamiRNAs through enhancer-promoter interaction to perform similar functions. Here, we review the functional differences and similarities between eRNAs and NamiRNAs in myogenesis and disease. We also propose models demonstrating their mutual mechanism and function. We conclude that eRNAs are active molecules, transcriptional regulators, and partners of NamiRNAs, rather than mere RNAs produced during enhancer activation.