Changes in wall shear stress of blood vessels are assumed to be an important component of many physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, due to technical limitations experimental in vivo data are rarely available. Here, we investigated two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy as an option to measure vessel diameter as well as blood flow velocities in a murine hindlimb model of arteriogenesis (collateral artery growth). Using line scanning at high frequencies, we measured the movement of blood cells along the vessel axis. We found that peak systolic blood flow velocity averaged 9 mm/s and vessel diameter 42 µm in resting collaterals. Induction of arteriogenesis by femoral artery ligation resulted in a significant increase in centerline peak systolic velocity after 1 day with an average of 51 mm/s, whereas the averaged luminal diameter of collaterals (52 µm) changed much less. Thereof calculations revealed a significant fourfold increase in hemodynamic wall shear rate. Our results indicate that two-photon line scanning is a suitable tool to estimate wall shear stress e.g., in experimental animal models, such as of arteriogenesis, which may not only help to understand the relevance of mechanical forces in vivo, but also to adjust wall shear stress in ex vivo investigations on isolated vessels as well as cell culture experiments.