BACKGROUND : The response to stroke in Nigeria is impaired by inadequate epidemiologic information. We sought to collate available evidence and estimate the incidence of stroke and prevalence of stroke survivors in Nigeria. METHODS : Using random effects meta-analysis, we pooled nationwide and regional incidence and prevalence of stroke from the estimates reported in each study. RESULTS : Eleven studies met our selection criteria. The pooled crude incidence of stroke in Nigeria was 26.0 (12.8-39.0) /100,000 person-years, with this higher among men at 34.1 (9.7-58.4) /100,000, compared to women at 21.2 (7.4-35.0) /100,000. The pooled crude prevalence of stroke survivors in Nigeria was 6.7 (5.8-7.7) /1000 population, with this also higher among men at 6.4 (5.1-7.6) /1000, compared to women at 4.4 (3.4-5.5) /1000. In the period 2000-2009, the incidence of stroke in Nigeria was 24.3 (95% CI: 11.9-36.8) per 100,000, with this increasing to 27.4 (95% CI: 2.2-52.7) per 100,000 from 2010 upwards. The prevalence of stroke survivors increased minimally from 6.0 (95% CI: 4.6-7.5) per 1000 to 7.5 (95% CI: 5.8-9.1) per 1000 over the same period. The prevalence of stroke survivors was highest in the South-south region at 13.4 (9.1-17.8) /100,000 and among rural dwellers at 10.8 (7.5-14.1) /100,000. CONCLUSIONS : Although study period does not appear to contribute substantially to variations in stroke morbidity in Nigeria, an increasing number of new cases compared to survivors may be due in part to limited door-door surveys, or possibly reflects an increasing mortality from stroke in the country.