The transformation of skin in-natura into leather in tannery industries generates large volumes of organic matter that attract small mammals. i.e., rodents living close to these facilities. Animals foraging in the backyards of such industries get exposed to the effluent produced by them; however, attention has not been given to the impacts of such exposure on the reproductive biology of these animals. Thus, our study assessed whether the direct exposure to this effluent for periods longer than 90 days leads to reproductive loss in male Swiss mice. We assessed animals' sexual behavior at the end of the experimental period and analyzed their testicular histology, as well as semen quality and volume, besides measuring pro-inflammatory markers and assessing the reproductive performance of the exposed animals. Based on the herein collected data, mice exposed to the gross effluent collected in the backyard of a tannery industry, as well as to the effluent diluted in 5% of water, presented behavioral and histological changes in the testes, disorganized germinal cells in the seminiferous tubules and inflammatory process in intertubular spaces. The inflammatory process resulted from increased proinflammatory cytokine (IFN-gamma and CCL2) concentrations in the testes, fact that explained the larger number of sperm abnormalities and the reduced number of produced sperms. These factors, along with the previously reported changes, may have led to the low reproductive performance of animals exposed to the tested pollutant, which was assessed through the lethal dominant test. This pioneering article addressed the reproductive impact caused by the direct exposure of small rodents to tannery effluents. The research helped better understanding how these pollutants can influence natural ecosystems.