Evaluation of cadmium (Cd) transfer from paddy soil to rice (Oryza sativa L.) using DGT in comparison with conventional chemical methods: derivation of models to predict Cd accumulation in rice grains.


State Key Laboratory for Quality and Safety of Agro-products; Key Laboratory of Information Traceability for Agricultural Products, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, 310021, China. [Email]


The consumption of rice contaminated with soil cadmium (Cd) threatens human health. It is essential to ensure the production of rice that meets food quality standards. Therefore, a large-scale field survey was conducted in Zhejiang province, southeastern China, to investigate the relationship between Cd accumulation in rice grains and Cd bioavailability in soil, and thus to establish a model to predict Cd contents in rice grains based on soil properties. For this purpose, a total of 156 paired rice and soil samples were collected. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that Cd measurements obtained by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) had a higher correlation (r = 0.818, p < 0.001) with the Cd in rice grains as compared to the Cd measured by the DTPA, CaCl2, EDTA, and HCl extraction methods, which indicated that the DGT technique was a reliable method for the assessment of Cd bioavailability in soils. In addition, among the four extraction methods, the DTPA-extractable Cd showed the highest correlation with the Cd contents in rice grains. Therefore, we developed two predictive models (modelDGT and modelDTPA) to predict Cd levels in rice grains via Cubist multivariate mixed linear regression, using "soil DGT-measured Cd, pH, and oxide contents of Ca, Si, and Fe" or "soil DTPA-extractable Cd, pH, OM, and oxide contents of Ca and Fe" as explanatory variables, respectively. The overall modelDGT and modelDTPA had R2 values of 0.95 and 0.93, respectively, and relative error values of 0.30 and 0.33, respectively. Simple correlation analysis showed direct and close relationships between the measured Cd in rice grains and the Cd concentrations predicted by the Cubist modelDGT and modelDTPA, with R2 values of 0.979 and 0.922, respectively. Therefore, Cd levels in rice grains could be predicted very well based on the two prediction models, and thus, the two models derived in this study are effective in identifying soils in which the Cd in rice grains will exceed food safety standards, thereby helping to ensure safe rice production.


Bioavailability,Cadmium,Diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT),Prediction model,Rice,

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