Evaluation of the rescaled complementary principle in the estimation of evaporation on the Tibetan Plateau.


College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China; State Key laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou 730000, China. Electronic address: [Email]


Accurate quantification of the terrestrial water balance can improve our knowledge of regional water cycle changes, and deepen our understanding of evaporation in hydrological cycle and under climate change. However, sparse observation networks on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) prevent the reliable estimates of actual evaporation. Based on the China regional surface Meteorological Feature Dataset (CMFD) and the Global Land Surface Satellite (GLASS) product, we adopted the latest rescaled nonlinear complementary relationship (CR) to calculate the monthly actual evaporation (E) from 1982 to 2015. We analyzed the spatio-temporal variability of the annual E on the entire TP, and explored the main meteorological factors controlling the annual E and the regulation of multiyear average annual E in different vegetation zones from southeast to northwest. Our results indicated that the net radiation (Rn) and E exhibited a favorable agreement with monthly changes of the observed values; and E estimated by the CR explained 79-96% variation of the eddy covariance flux measurements. The multiyear average E was 373.12 mm yr-1 and displayed similar spatial patterns of decreasing from southeast to northwest with two remote sensing products (GLDAS_VIC, GLEAM_v3.3) and one hydrological model (Budyko). Additionally, based on the Mann-Kendall trend test, there were 21.56% of the TP with significant upward trend of annual E which mainly distributed in the area with dense glaciers. The Nyenchen Tanglha Mountains and Pamirs Plateau area had the most obvious upward trend, with up to over 6 mm yr-1. In a relative sense, the key meteorological elements which affected annual E on the TP were relative humidity (RH) (r = 0.63) and Rn (r = 0.56).


Evaporation,Generalized nonlinear complementary relationship,Maximum apparent potential evaporation,Tibetan Plateau,

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