OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the association between polymorphisms in genes that regulate bone metabolism, such as OPG, RANK, RANKL, and HIF1A, in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. METHODS : The sample consisted of 181 individuals, the study included 17 individuals with TMJ ankylosis and 164 controls. DNA was extracted from buccal epithelial cells. The genotyping of genetic polymorphisms in OPG (rs2073618), RANK (rs3826620), RANKL (rs9594738), and HIF1A (rs2301113 and rs2057482) was performed by real-time PCR using TaqMan™ technology (Applied Biosystems). The data were subjected to statistical analysis with a level of significance of 0.05. RESULTS : The OPG (rs2073618) polymorphism was associated with TMJ ankylosis, both in the additive model and in the dominant model (p < 0.05). In the additive model, when the individuals carried the CC genotype, they presented as 10.80 times more likely to develop the condition (p = 0.03). In the dominant model, individuals that carried at least one C allele were 5.76 times more likely to have TMJ ankylosis, than those with the G allele (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS : The polymorphism rs2073618 of OPG is a possible marker that is associated with the risk of manifestation of TMJ ankylosis.