Exosomal microRNAs and exosomal long non-coding RNAs in gynecologic cancers.

Affiliation

Hashemipour M(1), Boroumand H(1), Mollazadeh S(2), Tajiknia V(3), Nourollahzadeh Z(4), Rohani Borj M(5), Pourghadamyari H(6), Rahimian N(7), Hamblin MR(8), Mirzaei H(9).
Author information:
(1)School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
(2)Natural Products and Medicinal Plants Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran.
(3)Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
(4)Department of Biological Science, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran.
(5)Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
(6)Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Afzalipour School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
(7)Endocrine Research Center, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Iran University of Medical Sciences
(IUMS), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]
(8)Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa. Electronic address: [Email]
(9)Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Institute for Basic Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Gynecologic cancer is a group of any malignancies affecting reproductive tissues and organs of women, including ovaries, uterine, cervix, vagina, vulva, and endometrium. Several types of molecular mechanisms are associated with the progression of gynecologic cancers. Among it can be referred to the most widely studied non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), specifically microRNAs (miRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs). As yet, lncRNAs are known to serve key biological roles via various mechanisms, such as splicing regulation, chromatin rearrangement, translation regulation, cell-cycle control, genetic imprinting and mRNA decay. Besides, miRNAs govern gene expression by modulation of mRNAs and lncRNAs degradation, suggestive of needing more research in this field. Generally, driving gynecological cancers pathways by miRNAs and lncRNAs lead to the current improvement in cancer-related technologies. Exosomes are extracellular microvesicles which can carry cargo molecules among cells. In recent years, more studies have been focused on exosomal non-coding RNAs (exo-ncRNAs) and exosomal microRNAs (exo-miRs) because of being natural carriers of lnc RNAs and microRNAs via programmed process. In this review we summarized recent reports concerning the function of exosomal microRNAs and exosomal long non-coding RNAs in gynecological cancers.