Explicit and implicit motor sequence learning in children and adults; the role of age and visual working memory.


Radboud University Nijmegen, Behavioural Science Institute, PO Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [Email]


This study investigated explicit and implicit motor learning, and the influence of visual working memory (VWM) and age. Sixty children and 28 adults learned a nine-button sequence task explicitly and implicitly. Performance in explicit and implicit learning improved with age. Learning curves were similar across ages for implicit learning. In explicit learning, learning curves differed across ages: younger children started slower, but their learning rate was higher compared to older children. Learning curves were similar across VWM scores, but performance in explicit learning was positively influenced by VWM scores. Further research and implications for education and rehabilitation are discussed.


Child,Explicit,Implicit,Motor learning,Working memory,

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