Exposure to Metalaxyl Disturbs the Skeletal Development of Zebrafish Embryos.


College of Tea and Food Science, Wuyi University, Wuyishan, 354300, Fujian, China. [Email]


Metalaxyl is broadly applied in agriculture to control peronosporales-caused diseases in plant. To investigate the toxic effects, zebrafish embryos were exposed to metalaxyl at 5, 50 and 500 ng/L for 72 h, the development of larvae were assessed. A significant decreased survival rate, body length, hatching rate (48 h post-fertilization), and a significant increased spinal curvature rate were observed in the 500 ng/L treatment. The lengths of lower jaw, upper jaw and hyomandibular were significantly decreased in the 5, 50 and 500 ng/L groups; while the lower jaw width was significantly increased in the 500 ng/L group. The lengths of palatoquadrate, ceratohyal and ethmoid plate were reduced. Though cyp26a1 mRNA levels showed no significant change, the transcription of bmp2b (in the 500 ng/L group), ihh (in the 50 and 500 ng/L groups), shh (in the 5, 50 and 500 ng/L groups) were significantly up-regulated, which may be related to the abnormal development of the skeleton.


Embryonic development,Fish,Mechanism,Pesticide,Skeleton,

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