Giardia duodenalis is an important zoonotic intestinal protozoan of animals and humans. We collected 450 faecal specimens from four age groups (pre-weaned piglets, weaned piglets, juveniles, adults) of Zangxiang pigs from Shaanxi and Qinghai provinces, to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis at the β-giardin (bg), triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) loci using nested PCRs in the present study. A total of 28 faecal samples were positive for presence of G. duodenalis, with an overall prevalence of 6.2%. Giardia duodenalis was detected in pigs from all age groups and in both investigated provinces. Significant differences (P < 0.0001) in prevalence were observed among the four age groups with prevalence decreasing with age. Sequence analysis indicated existence of genetic diversity of G. duodenalis isolates from Zangxiang pigs, with 4, 2 and 4 haplotypes at the bg, tpi and gdh loci, respectively. Two assemblages were identified, including the zoonotic assemblage B and assemblage E, with the latter as the predominant assemblage found in both locations and all age groups except adults. The present study expanded the host range of G. duodenalis and provided fundamental data for controlling G. duodenalis infection in Zangxiang pigs.