Food Insecurity and Lipid Profile Abnormalities Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): A Case-Control Study.

Affiliation

Tutunchi H(1), Saghafi-Asl M(2), Ebrahimi-Mameghani M(3), Ostadrahimi A(2).
Author information:
(1)Student Research Committee, Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
(2)Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
(3)Social Determinant of Health Research Center, School of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Abstract

This case-control study aimed to assess the relationship between food insecurity, its related risk factors and NAFLD among 210 subjects. The demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometric indices, and food insecurity and depression status were assessed. The prevalence of food insecurity was 56.8% and 26.1% in cases and controls (p < .001), respectively. The chance of NAFLD in the food insecure, depressed, overweight, and obese subjects was 2.2 (95%CI: 1.12-3.43), 1.9 (95%CI: 1.02-3.62), 2.6 (95%CI: 1.81-3.92), and 2.9 (95%CI: 2.02-5.34) times higher than food secured, normal, and normal weight subjects, respectively. A higher waist circumference (men, OR = 2.9, p < .001; women, OR = 2.6, p < .001), a high waist-to-hip ratio (men, OR = 2.3, p < .001; women, OR = 2.7, p < .001), an increased waist-to-height ratio (OR = 2.9, p < .001), and a higher body fat percentage (men, OR = 3.0, p < .001; women, OR = 3.3, p < .001) were associated with an increased risk of NAFLD. The odds of NAFLD increased by increment in serum triglyceride (TG) levels (OR = 2.6, p < .001) and decreased by increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR = 0.34, p < .001). Compared to controls, patients with NAFLD were more likely to have higher TG/HDL-C ratio (OR = 3.3, p < .001). It seems food insecurity was an important risk factor for NAFLD. Additionally, some indicators of dyslipidemia significantly increased the risk of NAFLD.