Footprints in the sand - Assessing the seasonal trends of volatile methylsiloxanes and UV-filters.


LEPABE - Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: [Email]


This study focused on the determination of seven volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs) and eleven UV-filters (UVFs) in beach sand from the Oporto's region (Portugal). A QuEChERS methodology ("Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe") was used to extract VMSs from the sand, which has never been employed before. To extract the UVFs, a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-three beach sand samples were analysed, from two campaigns - summer/winter. VMSs were found in all the samples with concentrations ranging from 0.007 ± 0.001 to 17.8 ± 0.9 ng g-1dw, while UVFs in summer samples from 0.030 ± 0.001 to 373 ± 17 ng g-1dw. Cyclic VMSs and octocrylene (OC) were detected in higher concentrations. In general, higher levels were detected in summer than winter. Hazard quotients were determined and 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (EMC) and benzophenone-3 (BP3) presented values >1, which may indicate that they may pose an ecotoxicological risk.


Ecological risks,Sand,UV-filters,Volatile Methylsiloxanes,