OBJECTIVE : This study sought to summarize the clinical characteristics of foreign body aspiration(FBA) in children with negative multi-detector Computed Tomography(MDCT) results and to explore the essential points which determined the patients to undergo bronchoscopy. METHODS : The medical records of 48 pediatric patients admitted to the department of respiratory medicine in our hospital from January 2011 to October 2018 and diagnosed with foreign body aspiration and negative chest MDCT results were retrospectively analyzed. They were compared with the patients of FBA whose MDCT findings suggested indirect signs, such as atelectasis or emphysema. RESULTS : Of the 48 patients, 33 were boys (68.8%) and 15 girls (31.2%), with a mean age of 35.3 months(range, 7-156 months). Cough (47 cases, 97.9%), fever (25 cases, 52.1%) and wheezing (23 cases,47.9%)were the main symptoms.39 patients (81.3%) had abnormal physical signs. None of the MDCT or three dimension(3D) images based on MDCT revealed foreign bodies in these children, while the results were: signs of lung infection without atelectasis or emphysema 52.1%(25 cases), increase of lung markings16.7%(8 cases),bronchiectasis 6.3%(3 cases), or normal 27.1%(13 cases). 41 Patients were successfully removed their foreign bodies(A further 5 had the FB removed from the tracheobronchial tree but it was then swallowed before retrieval. The remaining 2 cases had to be referred to another hospital for further management), most of which were organic. The shapes of foreign bodies were small granular (23 cases, 56.1%), sheet or powder (18 cases, 43.9%). The control group was 13 patients of FBA whose MDCT findings suggested indirect signs of atelectasis or emphysema during the same time. The result of comparison showed the clear history of FBA was statistically different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS : Foreign body aspiration could not be ruled out with negative MDCT in patients clinically suspected. Typical foreign body aspiration history and ineffective conservative treatment could provide important basis of performing bronchoscopy. Complicated with lung infection and the shape of foreign bodies may affect the false negative results of MDCT.