GABA-B receptors are important for Schwann cell (SC) commitment to a non-myelinating phenotype during development. However, the P0-GABA-B1fl/fl conditional knockout mice, lacking the GABA-B1 receptor specifically in SCs, also presented axon modifications, suggesting SC non-autonomous effects through the neuronal compartment. In this in vitro study, we evaluated whether the specific deletion of the GABA-B1 receptor in SCs may induce autonomous or non-autonomous cross-changes in sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. To this end, we performed an in vitro biomolecular and transcriptomic analysis of SC and DRG neuron primary cultures from P0-GABA-B1fl/fl mice. We found that cells from conditional P0-GABA-B1fl/fl mice exhibited proliferative, migratory and myelinating alterations. Moreover, we found transcriptomic changes in novel molecules that are involved in peripheral neuron-SC interaction.